On 3 and 4 February 2021 the European Cement Research Academy (ECRA) held a successful international online conference on “CO2 Infrastructures” together with experts on this topic from different areas, projects, companies and research institutions. The 450 registered attendees reflected a high level of interest from the cement industry, other industrial sectors and technology providers.
Different technological options and modes for CO2 transport were discussed in relation to potential sites for CO2 storage. The conference ended with a virtual site visit to the Carbon-2-Chem project in Duisburg for carbon capture and use. Following the presentations the aim of carbon-neutral industrial processes inspired lively discussions among the participants, highlighting key questions and initial answers and successes in projects for the development of CO2 infrastructure systems and networks required to make up the link between CO2 sources and sinks, e.g.:
• Geological CO2 storage safety and mid- and long-term capacity
• Questions and experiences related to the public acceptance of CCUS technology and CO2 infrastructures
• Options for inland and offshore CO2 transport including re-use and the building of new infrastructure
• Differences of gaseous and liquid CO2 transport
• Understanding of the CO2 phase diagram and requirements for low levels of residual other gas components
• Economy of CCUS value chains and expectations on CO2 transport costs
• Technical requirements for CO2 pre-processing and pipeline design
• Energy demand related to CO2 conditioning and transport
• Flexible options for CO2 ship or train transport
• Legal questions and examples of permitting procedures for CO2 infrastructures
ECRA is grateful for all the contributions in presentations, questions and discussions and the willingness to share the richness of experiences with operational and planned CCUS and CO2 infrastructure projects.
ECRA is happy to continue and intensify the started dialogue with stakeholders from different industries, policy and society. For climate protection in the cement industry all classical CO2 abatement options and efficiency measures must be applied. In addition, CCUS will play a key role in achieving climate neutrality due to the special challenge posed by process emissions originating from the raw material limestone. It will require successful joint efforts to develop effective CO2 infrastructures and new value chains for CCUS in Europe.